2007 Archive Edition - See the Archive Notice on the Project Homepage for more information.
Panaetius of Rhodes
Panaetius of Rhodes (c 185- 109 BCE) transformed classical Stoicism into a less restrictive form, Middle Stoicism, which was more acceptable to Roman intellectuals. He denied the Stoic principle of conflagration, the idea that periods of history ended with a fire that consumed everything, and doubted the validity of divine rationality, which put the Stoic belief of predetermined fate in question. Panaetius, unlike the traditional Stoics, thought that the pursuit and appreciation of wealth and material pleasures were important aspects of attaining virtue. Thus, he did not think that renouncing pains and pleasures were necessary for achieving the good life. Though he departed significantly from mainstream Stoicism, he did affirm the Stoic beliefs that the universe is immortal and that virtue is knowledge.
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