2007 Archive Edition - See the Archive Notice on the Project Homepage for more information.
Antipope Clement VII (Robert of Geneva)
The first antipope of the Western Schism, Clement VII was born Robert, son of Count Amadeus of Geneva and Marie de Boulogne, in 1342. Before his elevation to cardinal in 1371, he held several ecclesiastical titles, among them chancellor of Amiens and Bishop of Cambria. He was Pope Gregory XI's legate to the states of northern Italy, and in 1377, he led the troops who massacred 4,000 antipapal rebels at Cesena. The violence led Pope Gregory to leave Rome in fear of public reaction. Robert supported the election of Pope Urban VI in 1378, but led the French cardinals in their nullification of the election a few months later. The conclave at Anagni elected Robert Clement VII.
Antipope Clement attempted to take Rome in 1379 with French mercenaries, who had already captured the Castel Sant'Angelo. He failed. Although he received recognition from Queen Joan of Naples, the people favored Urban, and Clement fled to Avignon. He refused to resign and hoped that he would be elected pope of Rome when Urban died in 1389. However, Boniface IX excommunicated him and the cardinals who had elected him. Clement died of apoplexy in 1394.
Karen Rae Keck
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